Related Topics

  • Reality Check

Image source, Getty Images

A Senate panel in Brazil has backed a report recommending President Jair Bolsonaro faces charges including crimes against humanity for his response to the pandemic.

The president maintains he is "guilty of absolutely nothing".

So what has he been accused of and what has he done to respond to the outbreak?

How does Brazil's Covid record compare?

Brazil has by far the highest overall death toll in Latin America, and the second highest in the world after the US.

It also has one of the highest global death tolls as a proportion of its population – although not as high as neighbouring Peru.

What is Bolsonaro accused of?

The inquiry report, produced by Brazilian lawmakers, alleges Mr Bolsonaro pursued a policy of herd immunity – the scientific term for the point at which a population is protected by enough people having been vaccinated or developed antibodies by catching the disease.

Image source, Getty ImagesImage caption, Mourners at a burial site in Manaus – one of the worst hit cities in Brazil

It is alleged the Brazilian government let the virus rip through the country with the aim of achieving widespread immunity – which the report says led to unnecessary infections and deaths.

It describes the president as "the main person responsible for the errors committed by the federal government during the pandemic".

He is also accused of spreading misinformation about the virus.

What actions did Bolsonaro take to stop Covid spreading?

Mr Bolsonaro has said his government "did the right thing from the first moment" of the pandemic.

It closed its land borders to neighbouring countries in March 2020 to stem the outbreak but has never imposed a nationwide lockdown.

Image source, Getty ImagesImage caption, President Bolsonaro has continued to hold rallies with supporters throughout the pandemic

If it is up to him, Mr Bolsonaro says, "Brazil will never have a lockdown" because such restrictions only make the poor poorer.

  • Covid report: What is herd immunity?
  • Fact-checking claims by the Brazilian leader at UN

Throughout the pandemic, he has blocked local leaders' efforts to impose restrictions and called state governors and mayors who imposed lockdowns "tyrants".

He has also resisted other common public-health measures such as masks, saying they are ineffective at stopping the spread of coronavirus – although he has sometimes worn one himself after being ordered to do so by a judge in Brazil.

Mr Bolsonaro hasn't officially backed herd immunity – but his critics say the lack of public-health measures and messaging from the national government show this policy was pursued.

What has he said about treatments and vaccines?

The report also accuses Mr Bolsonaro of spreading misinformation surrounding coronavirus.

He has been sceptical about vaccines, downplayed the severity of the virus, and promoted unproven treatments.

Mr Bolsonaro has:

  • said the virus was "just a little flu"
  • cast doubts on the efficacy and safety of jabs
  • joked the Pfizer jab may "turn people into crocodiles"
  • said he would not get vaccinated and, having had Covid, was "better than vaccinated"
  • backed a "Covid kit" including unproven and potentially dangerous treatments such as hydroxychloroquine and ivermectin

Social-media platforms have removed several of Mr Bolsonaro's posts spreading misinformation throughout the pandemic – including a recent video in which the president falsely claimed a link between Covid vaccines and Aids.

What about Brazil's vaccine rollout?

Brazil has had a strong record in conducting vaccination campaigns and compared with many other countries in Latin America, it has a well established healthcare infrastructure.

But its coronavirus vaccination efforts initially lagged behind many others in the region – with critics blaming Mr Bolsonaro for being too slow to purchase doses.

It now has enough doses to vaccinate its entire population and has administered 125 doses per 100 people.


Global vaccine rollout

Asset 2

Click or tap the map

No data

0
10
20
30
40
50+

Scroll table

Filter table:

The World
Africa
Asia
Europe
Middle East
Latin America & Caribbean
North America
Oceania

Location

Doses per 100 people

Total doses

World

87.2

6,868,024,815

China

155.3

2,255,947,444

India

73.4

1,022,267,850

US

123.0

413,645,478

Brazil

125.3

268,199,870

Japan

146.8

185,079,015

Indonesia

65.5

180,948,208

Turkey

135.5

115,255,712

Mexico

88.4

115,185,985

Germany

132.1

110,840,177

Russia

69.1

100,766,655

Pakistan

44.7

100,741,762

France

144.9

97,886,077

UK

139.6

95,226,529

Italy

147.0

88,748,661

Iran

93.5

79,533,819

South Korea

146.8

75,308,637

Vietnam

74.3

72,929,311

Spain

152.5

71,275,614

Thailand

95.2

66,592,321

Bangladesh

36.2

60,153,454

Canada

152.8

58,161,185

Argentina

127.3

58,049,997

Philippines

50.2

55,715,693

Malaysia

149.7

49,069,291

Colombia

89.1

45,687,674

Saudi Arabia

128.1

45,266,839

Morocco

121.2

45,249,522

Poland

102.2

38,621,872

Chile

183.7

35,300,412

Australia

133.3

34,364,950

Peru

99.7

33,249,095

Sri Lanka

130.7

28,102,233

Cambodia

160.8

27,243,478

Cuba

223.3

25,275,700

Uzbekistan

74.0

25,101,646

Netherlands

139.1

23,884,413

Egypt

22.2

23,177,181

Taiwan

93.4

22,283,271

Ecuador

120.1

21,492,532

South Africa

35.5

21,300,098

United Arab Emirates

208.9

20,875,213

Belgium

144.4

16,791,676

Portugal

159.0

16,163,885

Venezuela

56.2

16,127,242

Ukraine

36.7

15,955,360

Israel

180.2

15,842,510

Myanmar

28.8

15,797,703

Kazakhstan

81.5

15,477,640

Nepal

50.7

15,048,288

Sweden

141.1

14,335,108

Algeria

31.6

14,082,920

Dominican Republic

119.1

13,046,499

Greece

121.1

12,558,035

Hungary

125.7

12,111,107

Czech Republic

111.5

11,960,709

Romania

61.4

11,740,280

Austria

125.8

11,378,315

Switzerland

125.5

10,933,659

Singapore

169.8

10,012,470

Azerbaijan

91.8

9,383,303

Tunisia

74.4

8,885,559

Denmark

151.8

8,827,168

Iraq

20.7

8,506,934

Guatemala

45.6

8,316,740

El Salvador

127.5

8,313,116

Nigeria

3.9

8,188,833

Finland

144.3

8,007,597

Norway

144.9

7,919,010

Turkmenistan

123.9

7,580,976

Jordan

71.6

7,354,774

Ireland

146.4

7,297,243

Serbia

100.6

6,948,020

Bolivia

58.6

6,931,689

New Zealand

136.3

6,623,500

Honduras

65.6

6,605,470

Uruguay

187.9

6,548,306

Costa Rica

119.2

6,124,445

Zimbabwe

38.7

5,836,363

Oman

108.7

5,679,984

Angola

16.7

5,661,085

Panama

123.3

5,403,579

Rwanda

40.6

5,394,793

Paraguay

71.5

5,165,112

Kenya

9.0

4,930,336

Qatar

164.2

4,811,693

Slovakia

87.6

4,784,937

Tajikistan

47.5

4,631,515

Belarus

47.4

4,472,001

Laos

59.7

4,402,770

Mongolia

131.9

4,392,350

Ethiopia

3.6

4,265,144

Mozambique

11.8

3,799,385

Croatia

87.2

3,557,853

Lithuania

124.5

3,349,746

Lebanon

47.1

3,189,658

Ivory Coast

11.1

3,005,741

Uganda

6.3

2,990,507

Bahrain

156.8

2,741,537

Bulgaria

39.6

2,728,389

Ghana

8.6

2,727,537

Kuwait

54.9

2,375,455

Afghanistan

5.9

2,369,625

Palestinian Territories

44.1

2,301,812

Slovenia

110.4

2,294,768

Guinea

15.7

2,124,390

Senegal

11.4

1,961,144

Georgia

48.3

1,920,934

Albania

64.9

1,865,942

Latvia

99.8

1,863,214

Libya

26.0

1,809,365

Mauritius

135.5

1,725,697

Kyrgyzstan

25.2

1,667,139

Sudan

3.7

1,659,666

North Macedonia

76.4

1,590,219

Kosovo

86.3

1,532,585

Moldova

37.0

1,486,884

Estonia

106.8

1,415,740

Nicaragua

19.5

1,306,694

Mauritania

27.2

1,300,831

Togo

15.2

1,287,154

Bosnia and Herzegovina

38.1

1,242,203

Cyprus

134.3

1,203,326

Trinidad and Tobago

85.7

1,202,702

Malawi

6.0

1,183,633

Fiji

125.9

1,136,909

Bhutan

141.5

1,103,506

Syria

4.9

902,519

Jamaica

30.1

893,629

Tanzania

1.4

885,579

Botswana

36.8

882,831

Zambia

4.6

871,881

Malta

168.5

866,963

Timor-Leste

63.7

855,619

Luxembourg

127.0

806,150

Niger

3.2

803,146

Maldives

137.5

747,719

Armenia

22.8

677,032

Somalia

3.9

635,822

Guyana

77.3

610,721

Brunei

133.2

588,206

Mali

2.8

584,773

Iceland

165.4

567,789

Madagascar

2.0

566,265

Namibia

20.7

535,048

Montenegro

78.7

494,110

Cameroon

1.8

490,604

Cape Verde

85.9

482,946

Suriname

74.7

442,033

Equatorial Guinea

29.3

424,653

Congo

7.2

410,016

Comoros

45.9

407,792

Sierra Leone

4.9

396,196

Lesotho

17.8

383,341

Yemen

1.2

356,173

Liberia

6.8

349,837

Belize

85.1

344,463

Central African Republic

6.5

321,343

Burkina Faso

1.4

297,231

Eswatini

23.1

270,643

Barbados

92.2

265,301

Benin

2.0

252,698

Bahamas

61.5

244,223

Gambia

9.7

241,290

Gabon

9.5

217,606

Chad

1.2

199,516

Papua New Guinea

2.1

194,962

Samoa

94.3

188,664

Jersey

163.3

165,076

Seychelles

161.1

159,392

DR Congo

0.2

144,980

Solomon Islands

20.2

141,920

Isle of Man

154.1

131,628

South Sudan

1.1

122,889

Guinea-Bissau

6.0

121,501

Cayman Islands

168.1

111,772

Haiti

1.0

110,603

Sao Tome and Principe

46.4

103,720

Antigua and Barbuda

104.2

102,834

Guernsey

152.9

102,548

Andorra

131.9

102,032

Djibouti

9.2

92,097

Bermuda

143.4

89,029

Vanuatu

27.9

87,583

Saint Lucia

47.4

87,446

Gibraltar

257.3

86,700

Tonga

75.0

80,062

Greenland

135.4

77,006

Faroe Islands

156.0

76,516

Grenada

57.8

65,362

Turks and Caicos Islands

138.7

54,417

Kiribati

42.4

51,428

Dominica

70.7

50,991

Monaco

126.5

49,980

Saint Kitts and Nevis

93.0

49,817

Liechtenstein

126.1

48,245

San Marino

139.1

47,302

St Vincent and the Grenadines

34.3

38,137

British Virgin Islands

108.7

33,075

Cook Islands

133.7

23,489

Anguilla

123.7

18,705

Nauru

136.7

14,863

Tuvalu

91.1

10,861

Saint Helena

129.5

7,892

Falkland Islands

124.9

4,407

Montserrat

58.4

2,911

Niue

145.7

2,352

Tokelau

141.5

1,936

Burundi

0

287

Pitcairn

200.0

94

British Indian Ocean Territory

0

0

Eritrea

0

0

North Korea

0

0

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

0

0

Vatican

0

0

Please upgrade your browser to see the full interactive

Show more

This is more than many countries in the region but remains behind Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay.

About 54% of people in Brazil are now fully vaccinated, compared with 67% in the UK.

Read more from Reality Check

Send us your questions