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An Indonesian court has ruled that President Joko Widodo and other top officials have been negligent in tackling air pollution in Jakarta.
In a landmark decision, the court ordered monitoring stations and other measures to improve the capital's air.
The lawsuit was filed by residents in 2019, the same year an air quality monitor ranked it the worst air-polluted city in the world.
The air pollution verdict has since been postponed eight times.
Jakarta, home to around 10 million people, is the largest city in Indonesia.
Its persistent smog is caused by heavy traffic and coal-fired power plants that have not been fitted with filters.
The legal action had been filed against President Widodo, the Ministry of Forestry and Environment and the Governor of Jakarta among others, by 32 Jakarta residents who argued that the health of the city's residents was badly affected by air pollution.
The district court has instructed Mr Widodo to improve the national standard of air quality, adding that the provincial government must conduct checks like periodical emission tests for older vehicles in Jakarta and outdoor air quality tests.
This information must be made public, the court said.
Meanwhile Mr Widodo is pressing ahead with plans to move Indonesia's capital out of Jakarta to East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo, nearly 1,300km (800 miles) away.
On Wednesday local media quoted him as saying that officials would benefit from the fresh air and the green environment there. Ministers currently need police escorts to get through Jakarta's notorious traffic and reach meetings on time.
Some basic facilities in the new capital could be operational by 2024, Mr Widodo added, but officials say it will take up to 20 years to finish the project.
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- The fastest-sinking city in the world
In addition to its polluted air and problems of overcrowding, Jakarta is also sinking at an alarming rate and researchers say large parts of it could be submerged by 2050.
North Jakarta has sunk by 2.5m (8ft) over the past 10 years and is continuing to sink an average of 1-15cm a year. Almost half the city is already below sea level.
One of the main causes is the extraction of groundwater to meet the growing city's needs. The city is also built on marshy lands and the surrounding seas are rising.
media captionWhy Indonesia's capital Jakarta is sinking