Shamima Begum, the schoolgirl who fled Britain to join the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (Isil), was a victim of child trafficking, her lawyers have claimed.
Ms Begum was just 15 when she and two other schoolgirls travelled to the Middle East in Feb 2015.
She is currently locked in a legal battle to be allowed to return after the Home Office revoked her British citizenship on the grounds of national security.
But lawyers for Ms Begum, who is now 21, have claimed there is "overwhelming evidence" that she was a victim of trafficking and argue that the Government has a legal duty to investigate the claims.
Samantha Knights QC, told the Special Immigration Appeals Commission (SIAC) that "the counter-terrorism unit had suspicions of coercion and control" at the time she left the UK.
Ms Begum’s legal team argued that the Home Office had failed to consider whether she was "a child trafficked to, and remaining in, Syria for the purposes of sexual exploitation and forced marriage".
Ms Knights told the court that Ms Begum, whose three children all died in Syria, is currently held in the al-Roj camp, which is run by the Syrian Democrat Forces (SDF).
She said: "Ms Begum… is in a fundamentally unsafe environment in a camp run by the SDF. Physical violence is common and psychological trauma is endemic."
The lawyer said her client was living in a situation of "serious and present danger" and by engaging with Western authorities as part of her legal case she was increasing her risk.
But David Blundell QC, representing the Home Office, argued there was no overwhelming evidence that she had been trafficked.
In written submissions he explained: "It is significant that the allegation is not that Ms Begum was trafficked, but rather that she ‘may have been’ trafficked.
"Ms Begum herself has never stated that she has been trafficked, despite having given numerous media interviews and provided instructions to her solicitors on a number of matters.
"The absence of a claim that she has in fact been trafficked means this ground proceeds on an uncertain factual basis. It is entirely speculative."
Ms Begum, right, was 15 when she and two other east London schoolgirls travelled to Syria in 2015
The Home Office also wants Ms Begum’s legal case to be put on hold until another similar case is heard next March.
Three other women, who cannot be identified, but have also had their British citizenship revoked, are also challenging the decision.
Their barrister Julianne Kerr Morrison said one of the women had two very young children, while another had four children.
They are all being held at the a-Roj camp in Syria in what were described as "appalling conditions".